Certainty of Faith and Good Works
Martin Luther as Precursor of Moral Utilitarianism
(FKTh 2017-3, p. 161–178)
»It is not enough to believe, to hope and to love, but you have to know und must be shure that you believe, hope and love« (M. Luther, Operationes in Psalmos, 1519-1521). To make shure the subjective certainty of justifying faith in changing the attitude of the acting person has become the basis of a new understanding of moral acting. Utility alone has to be intended and conscience has to be free from any concern of justification. Only if both conditions are realized there is sufficient certainty that you believe in the effectiveness of faith. From Luther’s understanding of justification follows the justification of Utilitarian ethics wherein moral practice has lost any »soteriological relevance« (K.-H. zur Mühlen).